Welcome to the LIDD dashboard

This app provides interactive access to the LIDD direct democracy dataset.

Navigation

Use the left-navigation side bar to access the features of the dashbaord.

Get started

Click on the 'Get started' tab to leanr about the LIDD typology of instruments and concepts.

Explore

Interact with the LIDD direct democracy dataset, explore variables of interest and download data.

Important information before using the dashboard

Aims and objectives

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The LIDD typology

The LIDD typology operates on two levels. The first, more nuanced, typology covers the seven most prevalent instruments of direct democracy across the Council of Europe states. A second, narrower, three-fold typology is the basis for the Analysis tab which contains statistical summaries. The three-fold typology focuses only on referendum triggering instruments while avoiding potential replication.

Structure of data

The basic unit of analysis in the LIDD dataset is the Country X Instrument combination. This produces a stacked dataset where a Country row is repeated for each Direct Democracy instrument provided for. For further information see the Documentation tab.

Note: Missing cases

The LIDD project focuses on the Council of Europe member states. Six countries have been classified as not providing for direct democracy instruments at the national level. These countries are not included in the LIDD database. The countries are: Belgium; Bosnia and Hercegovina; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Monaco and Norway.

LIDD typology of direct democracy instruments


Definitions


Executive-initiated referendum

Legislature-initiated referendum

Subnational-initiated referendum

Law-initiated referendum

Rejective citizens’ initiative

Proactive citizens’ initiative

Agenda Initiative

Number of available direct democracy instruments per country

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Types of available instruments (use column headers to sort table)

Number of national referendums since 1990 per country)

Instruments provided for at national level

Referendum related (where relevant)

Signature related (where relevant)

Formal limitataions (wording)

Formal admissibility review

Substantive limitations (topic prohibitions)

Substantive admissibility review

Countries providing for this instrument

Referendum related (where relevant)

Signature related (where relevant)

Formal limitataions (wording)

Formal admissibility review

Substantive limitations (topic prohibitions)

Substantive admissibility review

Explore Instrument/Item in detail

How to use

To view the entire questionnaire for a particular item use the inputs in the left box drill down to the question of interest.

Instrument/Item questionnaire

Explore Country/Instrument in detail

How to use

Use the inputs in the left box to select the Country & Instrument combination of interest. The Theme selector then allows you to see the answers grouped by themes.

Country by Instrument questionnaire

Referendum events dashboard

Provides information on referendum events for all the countries included in the LIDD database. The dataset covers the years 1990 - 2020 and includes a harmonised policy typology.

Items and Definitions

LIDD data codebook

The LIDD data codebook contains all the information related to the variables, coding and methodology. [Download here]

R data file

Download

Excel file

Download

CSV file

Download

How to cite

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